Artificial intelligence is a new technology that imitates human cognitive abilities and has attracted the attention of scientists all over the world. The central part of artificial intelligence technology is the neural network, which is designed like the human brain and can simulate human thinking. This brain architecture is formed by interconnected neurons that act like a data processing system to deal with a specific problem. This technology has recently been used in dentistry, leading to good results.
Artificial intelligence provides an efficient way to analyze clinical dental data.
Main components of the artificial intelligence system:
Machine learning: includes methods that estimate results using a set of data. This system helps machines access available information and aims سغto solve problems without human intervention.
Neural networks: use artificial neurons and compute signals that operate similarly to the human brain.
Deep learning: It has multiple computational layers that create a network of neurons and identify patterns on its own, thereby improving detection.
Data science: is the process of analyzing and extracting information from the analyzed data.
Big Data: Analyze a considerable amount of data collected in different ways. These data are gathered over time and gradually become complete to provide correct and comprehensive information to users.
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The function of artificial intelligence
Artificial intelligence works in two stages:
The training data specifies the parameters of the model. The model uses data that was collected in previous examples, such as data from a patient. These parameters are then applied to the test sets.
Artificial intelligence has been considered a “black box” for everyone because many outputs and results have been observed without explaining why and how. On the contrary, today, it has a different mechanism. Artificial intelligence receives input, prepares a heatmap from it, and makes predictions.
Application of artificial intelligence in dentistry
Intelligent educational systems started in the 1980s and have made significant progress. In dental education, artificial intelligence simulates clinical work on the patient and minimizes the risks of working on the live patient. As a result, the preclinical feedback of the students has improved significantly. Artificial intelligence provides a context for students to evaluate their skills and compare them with real examples, resulting in higher quality education before entering the job market. Many studies show that these systems enhance competitive skills in students.
A virtual dental assistant using artificial intelligence can perform several tasks simultaneously with greater accuracy and fewer mistakes and requires less staffing than human labor. In addition, they can be helpful in clinical diagnosis, treatment planning, visit planning, organizing insurance and administrative work, and providing a history of the patient’s habits and lifestyles, such as drinking and smoking. Registering patient information through artificial intelligence in emergencies can significantly help the treatment staff to access patient information and records.
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Diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis
The use of artificial intelligence helps a lot in the diagnosis and treatment of oral cavity diseases and the classification of suspicious mucus changes. The accuracy of this system in the treatment is so high that it detects even the slightest changes in the pixel limit that remain far from human sight. It can even notice the genetic tendency of each person to develop oral cancer. Using machine learning in dentistry can help diagnose diseases.
Artificial intelligence in dental radiology
There are areas of artificial intelligence in dental radiology with a greater focus on diagnostic methods in digital RVGS/IOPA, 3D scanning, and CBCT. A lot of data needs to be collected and processed to create the right artificial intelligence that makes quick diagnoses and helps plan treatment.
Oral and maxillofacial surgery
The most significant use of artificial intelligence in dentistry is robotic surgery, where the movement of the human body and intellect is replicated. Dental implants, removal of tumors and foreign bodies, biopsy, and temporomandibular joint (TMJ) surgery are examples of cranial surgery performed with image guidance and have been very successful in clinical settings.
Even compared to the best surgeons, implant surgeries that were done robotically had higher accuracy and speed of repair. In addition, there is no difference between the surgery performed by a novice trainee and the most skilled surgeons. This factor is a big step in oral and maxillofacial surgery because it eliminates the limitation of professional human resources and allows all people to benefit from these services.
Robotic surgery generally results in shorter operating times, higher intraoperative precision, and safer manipulation around delicate structures. Surgery has undergone a revolution thanks to artificial intelligence. Several robotic surgeons now perform semi-automated surgical procedures under the supervision of a skilled surgeon with increased efficiency.
Recently, a design assistant called RaPid has been designed that considers several aspects such as anthropometric calculations, facial dimensions, ethnicity, and patient preferences to design the most suitable prosthesis. This database assistant connects knowledge-based systems and computer-aided design using logic-based mapping and creates a unified framework. Advances in neural networks have enabled laboratories to utilize artificial intelligence to create dental restorations that meet the highest standards. In addition to its positive effect on dentistry, this technology can significantly help mouth, face, and skull prostheses.
Orthodontic related to artificial intelligence
Today, artificial intelligence can be used to diagnose, plan and monitor the treatment of dental prostheses. Radiograph analysis and images prepared by intraoral scanners can be used for diagnosis and treatment planning. This way, many laboratory steps are eliminated, and the findings obtained are generally more accurate than human understanding. Accurate 3D scans and virtual models can be used for flush 3D printing to create a unique treatment strategy for anyone.
As massive amounts of data are processed, an algorithm is created that intelligently determines under what pressure and the correct method of movement for the patient and specific pressure points for that tooth or teeth. In addition to providing accurate treatment execution and progress monitoring, AI-assisted aligners promise to shorten treatment times and simplify appointment scheduling.
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Artificial intelligence is also widely used in forensic dentistry. This technology has been effective in determining healthy and sick people’s biological age and gender. In addition, it is also helpful for analyzing bite marks and predicting mandibular morphology.
We can use artificial intelligence in different aspects to advance all areas of dentistry. Take the dental chair, for example. It has changed a lot from the basic types until now to make the dentist’s work easier. Today, models have been launched that use voice commands to change positions. This sample no longer requires the dentist’s physical activity. One of the potential features of this chair that can be reached in the future is chairs that can monitor vital signs, anxiety level, weight, and length of the treatment process. In addition to the mentioned cases, it comforts the patient and reports any change in its condition to the doctor.
Dentistry is set to benefit from some of the fascinating applications of artificial intelligence. One of the most creative applications of artificial intelligence is “bioprinting,” which creates tissues and even living organs in successive thin layers of cells. It may one day be used to reconstruct the hard and soft parts of the mouth that have been lost due to pathological or unintentional reasons.