Tobacco use is growing at a breakneck rate. As the age of drug use decreases day by day. In addition to the destructive effects of tobacco on the brain and mental problems, oral health is also at risk. Join StrAIberry to learn more about the effects of tobacco on oral health.
Effects of smoking on oral hygiene
Smoking is associated with many serious illnesses such as cancer, heart and lung disease, low birth weight, and many other health problems. It is also associated with detrimental effects on oral health, such as an increased risk of periodontal disease. In addition, dental implant failure is more common in smokers than non-smokers, and peri-implantitis are more common in smokers. Tobacco can be taken orally in different forms, from smoking to chewing smokeless tobacco. These may induce a variety of oral manifestations of the disease.
These lesions are most likely caused by stimulants, toxins, and carcinogens found in the smoke emitted from tobacco burning, but may also arise from drying of the mucosa by the high intra-oral temperature, pH changes, and changes in the immune response, altered resistance to fungal or viral infections. Other repercussions include bad breath, tooth staining, composite restorations, reduced taste and smell, and nicotine and keratosis stomatitis. Most of these problems are reversible after quitting smoking.
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- Periodontal diseases
Periodontal diseases, including gingivitis and periodontitis, are common human bacterial infections that affect the gums, and bones that support teeth. Gingivitis is the gums’ peripheral tissue inflammation and is usually the result of dental plaque accumulation. Untreated gingivitis can turn into periodontitis with plaque accumulating below the gum line. Periodontitis is a destructive inflammation that causes irreversible loss of periodontal adhesion and the alveolar bone that holds the tooth in place.
Epidemiological studies have shown that tobacco use is the major risk factor for periodontal disease. The severity of the disease increases with repeated smoking. Smoking is also associated with an increased risk of periodontal adhesion loss and the formation of periodontal pockets, as well as alveolar bone loss. The adverse effects of smoking on periodontium are directly associated with the rate of daily smoking and duration of use. Smokers are 2.5 to 3.5 times more likely to lose severe periodontal ligaments. In analyzes adjusted for different oral health habits, age, sex, and socioeconomic status of patients, smokers with deeper periodontal pockets, increased alveolar bone resorption, increased tooth mobility, and more tooth loss than non-smokers. In addition, emotional stress and poor oral hygiene appear to play a crucial interactive role in smoking.
Smokers respond less to non-surgical and surgical periodontal treatment than non-smokers. They also showed less improvement in terms of envelope depth, gingivitis, and clinical attachment. Smoking harms the results of guided tissue regeneration treatment (which aims to encourage regeneration of lost periodontal attachment) in terms of reducing stagnation, increasing clinical adhesion and bone probing, and root canal. However, up to 90% of periodontitis patients are resistant to smoking.
- Dental implant failure
Smoking increases tooth mobility. Tooth loss reduces oral chewing function and quality of life, leading to subsequent demand for tooth replacement, such as dentures or implant supports.
In addition, smoking is directly related to the failure of dental implants, and there is general agreement about the negative impact of smoking on implant survival. Significant proportions of implant failure occur in smokers compared to non-smokers (11.28% vs. 4.76%).
Peri-implantitis is the formation of deep mucosal envelopes around dental implants, inflammation of the tissues around the implant, and increased bone resorption around the implant. Chronic peri-implantitis can lead to implant failure if left untreated. Tobacco use may directly jeopardize the bone integrity of root implants. The combination of smoking and plaque-induced inflammation significantly affects bone loss around implants, while occlusal loading plays only a slight role.
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- Oral precancerous lesions
Leukoplakia and erythroplakia
Oral leukoplakia is the mostly white lesion in the oral mucosa. Some of these lesions turn into cancer. The diagnosis of oral leukoplakia is based on the recognition of several levels of certainty, an approach that is similar to the use of C-factor in the tumor-nonmetastatic classification system. Smokers with precancerous lesions of the mouth, such as leukoplakia and erythroplakia (red spots or plaques that cannot be diagnosed clinically or pathologically like other diseases), have an annual cancer conversion rate of about 5%.
Snuff pouch or smokeless tobacco keratosis is a white, dry, and rough patches. It has a clear appearance rather than a matte whiteness. This lesion occurs only in areas of direct contact with tobacco or chewing tobacco and is reversible when infected patients give up the habit. On the other hand, many oral cancers do not go through the precancerous stage, and not all precancerous lesions become malignant. Some may even regress over time.
- Oral cancer
Oral cancer is dominated by squamous cell carcinoma (present in 90 to 95% of oral cancers), and the role of tobacco in the formation of squamous cell carcinoma of the mouth is well known. It is daunting to prognosis this problem in the long run, and its treatment can cause many cosmetic and functional problems. Oral cancer can also be considered an alcohol consumption repercussion. Alcohol can make the mucosa more sensitive to malignant changes by tobacco carcinogens, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, formaldehyde, and nitrosamines. Smoking and chewing betel nuts with or without the use of smokeless tobacco may cause genetic mutations that lead to oral cancer.
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Other effects are:
- stained teeth
- bad breath (halitosis)
- tooth loss
- gum disease
- loss of taste and smell
- reduced blood supply to the mouth
- increased build-up of plaque and tartar on your teeth
Smoking cessation effects
The harm of smoking to oral hygiene is common knowledge. Just as smoking endangers the overall health of the body, smoking cessation can greatly alleviate these symptoms. Smoking cessation can have the following effects:
- Quitting smoking is beneficial for the results of periodontal treatment and health. The progression of periodontal disease also slows down in people who quit smoking. Quitting smoking may even restore normal periodontal and microbial treatment responses: The therapeutic response of ex-smokers can even resemble that of non-smokers.
- Cigarettes affect the composition of the submandibular microflora in adult patients with periodontitis, and smoking may be prone to developing certain populations of periodontal pathogens. Therefore, both antibiotic therapy and participation in a smoking cessation program may be the most effective treatment for periodontal disease caused by smoking.
- Smoking cessation protocols show significant promise in improving ossification success in smokers overcoming addiction, with significant differences in failure rates between nonsmokers and smokers and between smokers who have adopted the smoking cessation protocol and those who continue to smoke.
- Findings show that quitting smoking may reduce the number of cases of leukoplakia by up to 36%.